A compound of two or more metals.

A light, malleable metal that is a good conductor of electricity. Commonly found in nature in oxidized form, bauxite.

The positive electrode at which oxidization occurs in an electrolysis reaction.

Anode Copper
In a copper smelter, the blister copper which has undergone further refinement to remove impurities. In an anode furnace, the blister copper is blown with air and natural gas to upgrade its purity to approximately 99.0% for copper. It is then cast into copper slabs that are shipped to an electrolytic refinery.

Anode Furnace
A furnace in which blister copper is refined into anode copper.

A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount of valuable metals contained.


The horizontal floor cuttings along which mining progresses in an open-pit mine. As the pit progresses to lower levels, safety benches are left in the walls to catch any rock falling from above.

Blast Furnace
A reaction vessel in which mixed charges of sufide, fluxes and fuels are blown with a continuous blast of hot air and oxygen-enriched air for the chemical reduction of metals to their metallic state.

A drill hole in a mine that is filled with explosives in order to blast loose a quantity of rock.

Technique to break ore in an underground or open-pit mine.

Blister Copper
A crude form of copper (assaying about 99%) produced in a smelter that requires further refining before being used for industrial purposes. The name is derived from the large blisters that form on the cast surface as a result of the liberation of sulfur dioxide and other gases.

Development projects in existing properties.


    Fast Facts

  • Over 60 years experience
  • More than 100 projects completed
  • ISO 9001:2008 quality certified
  • ISO 14001:2004 environment certified