Copper that has been refined by electrolytic deposition.

Electrolytic Refining
Copper anodes are placed alternatively with refined copper sheets in a tank through which a copper sulfate solution and sulfuric acid are circulated. A low voltage current is then introduced, causing copper to transfer from anodes to the pure copper sheets, producing 99.9% copper cathodes. Impurities, often containing precious metals, settle to the bottom of the tank.

The process of removal of copper from solution by the action of electric currents.

Environmental Impact Study (EIS)
A written report, compiled prior to a production decision, that examines the effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings.

Prospecting, sampling, mapping, diamond-drilling and other work involved in searching for ore.


A process for concentrating materials based on the selective adhesion of certain minerals to air bubbles in a mixture of water and ground-up ore. When the right chemicals are added to a frothy water bath of ore that has been ground to a fine powder, the minerals will float to the surface. The metal-rich flotation concentrate is then skimmed off the surface.

Flotation Cell
Appliance in which froth flotation of ores is performed.


The science concerned with the study of the rocks which compose the earth.

A very ductile and malleable, brilliant yellow precious metal that is resistant to air and water corrosion.

The percentage of metal content in ore.

Grass root projects.

Means of reducing ore into very small particles by means of pressure or impact. Different types of grinders are used in the processing plant to obtain the desired dimension.

Gyratory Crusher
A machine that crushes ore between an eccentrically mounted crushing cone and fixed crushing throat. Typically has a higher capacity than a jaw crusher.


An area of land equivalent to 10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres.

High Grade
Rich ore. As a verb, it refers to selective mining of the best ore in a deposit.

The machine used for raising and lowering the cage or other conveyance in a shaft.

Host Rock
The rock surrounding an ore deposit.

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