A metal used in metal-protecting alloys; often produced as a byproduct of zinc refining.

The act of pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape.

In the electrolytic refining process, the refined copper that has been deposited in the cathode, starting from an anode in an acid solution of copper sulfate.

A carbonaceous rock mined for use as a fuel.

Fuel source comprised of bituminous coal from which the volatile elements have been eliminated by heat in a coking plant.

A fine, powdery intermediate product of the milling process formed by separating a valuable metal from waste.

The process by which ore is separated into metal concentrates and reject material through processes such as crushing, grinding and flotation. Concentrates are shipped to a smelter.

The facility in which ore is processed to separate minerals from the host rock.

Continuous Miner
A piece of mining equipment that produces a continuous flow of ore from the working face.

In copper smelting, a furnace used to separate copper metal from matte.

Very malleable and ductile red metal that is a good conductor of electricity.

Copper Concentrates
A product of the concentrator usually containing 20% to 30% copper. It is the raw material for smelting.

Crusher (primary, secondary, tertiary)
A machine for crushing rock, ore or other material.

Crushing and Grinding
The process by which ore is broken into small pieces to prepare it for further processing.

A method of excavating ore material in a stope and its replacement with waste material or tailings from a concentrator.

Cut-Off Grade
The lowest grade of mineralized material considered economic. Cut-off grade is used in the calculation of the ore reserves for a given deposit.


A mineralized body which has been physically delineated by sufficient drilling, trenching, and/or underground work and found to contain a sufficient average grade of metal or metals to warrant further exploration and/or development expenditures. Such a deposit does not qualify as a commercially mineable ore body, or as containing ore reserves, until final legal, technical and economic factors have been resolved.

Activities related to a mineral deposit commencing at the point economically recoverable reserves can reasonably be estimated to exist and generally continuing until commercial production begins.

The hardest known mineral, composed of pure carbon; low-quality diamonds are used to make bits for diamond drilling in rock.

Rotary rock drilling that cuts a core of rock that is recovered in long cylindrical sections, 2 centimeters or more in diameter.

A tool used to give a shape to material based on the shape of the tool itself.

Dilution (extracting loss)
The process by which the rock removed along with the ore in the mining process lowers the grade of the ore.

Reducing the cross section of wire by pulling it through a die.

A pile of broken rock or ore on the earth's surface.

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